NOV 2018

DAYSPA is the business resource for spa & wellness professionals! Each issue covers the latest in skin care, spa treatments, wellness services and management strategies.

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S k i n D e e p • november 2018 • [ 41 ] Skin Deep As people age, the cycle of cell production and replacement slows, dead cells accumulate on the skin's surface, collagen and elastin degrade, and skin becomes thinner—all of which leads to a duller complexion and causes sagging, lines and wrinkles. When applied topically, retinol converts to retinoic acid, the active ingredient found in prescription versions. It works on the molecular level, binding to DNA and activating retinoid receptors that regulate how cells function. "Retinol is a communicator that signals aging cells to continue their renewal process, increasing the rate of new cell formation," explains Elizabeth Stankov-Giralt, DermaSwiss director of education and product development. In other words, retinol helps skin act younger, kick-starting desquamation (the peeling and shedding process) and bringing new, healthy cells to the surface for a more youthful complexion. "It also increases collagen density by slowing down degradation," adds Lorrie Klein, MD, dermatologist and medical director of OC Dermatology in Laguna Niguel, California. Plus, retinol's antioxidant properties interrupt the free-radical damage that contributes to signs of aging. A true multitasker, retinol works intrinsically and extrinsically on the skin. "It helps make cells more organized, improving texture and minimizing the appearance of wrinkles, acne, hyperpigmentation and dullness," says Alison Adams-Woodford, senior manager of research and development and communications at PCA Skin. "It does this by compacting and thinning the stratum corneum; dispersing melanin granules to reduce visible pigmentation; and correcting abnormal desquamation." The Science Is In • A four-week treatment with 0.1 percent retinol increased levels of procollagen types 1 and 3 (the body's precursor to collagen), and wrinkles were reduced after 12 weeks. (Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, 2015) • Researchers at the University of Michigan Medical School found that applying a 0.4 percent retinol lotion three times a week for 24 weeks helped reverse skin aging. After just four weeks, fi ne lines began to fade, and continued to improve throughout the study. Skin roughness was also signifi cantly reduced. (JAMA Dermatology, 2007) • A combination of retinol (0.3 percent) and hydroquinone (4 percent) more effectively diminished the collective signs of photodamage than a 0.05 percent tretinoin emollient cream in terms of dyspigmentation, fi ne wrinkles and tactile roughness over the course of 16 weeks. (Dermatologic Surgery, 2005) R etinoids, the umbrella term for all vitamin A derivatives including prescription strength retinoic acid and over-the- counter (OTC) retinols, are not new to the skincare industry. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the fi rst retinoid, tretinoin, almost 40 years ago as a prescription acne treatment, yet dermatologists quickly noticed that it demonstrated clinical potential for treating a wider range of concerns, from photodamage to fi ne lines. Although prescription formulas are more potent, OTC retinol has since been hailed as an antiaging skin staple with proven and impressive results. "Retinol is the safest form of vitamin A that can be used on the skin," says Christine Dunn, national director of education for Pevonia. "By enhancing cellular performance and helping to repair mature and sun damaged skin, it's the 'renovation architect' of dermal layers." With four-plus decades of research supporting its ability to boost cell turnover, build collagen and fi ght acne, retinol is an essential ingredient for clients seeking a clearer, younger-looking complexion.

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