JAN 2016

DAYSPA is the business resource for spa & wellness professionals! Each issue covers the latest in skin care, spa treatments, wellness services and management strategies.

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54 DAYSPA | JANUARY 2016 Happily for estheticians and their clients, skin brightening products have become more targeted, and that's because we've learned more about exactly how melanin production takes place in the skin, says Eric Chillseyzn, a long-time cosmetic chemist currently formulating for Glycelene in Dana Point, California. The more we learn about skin pigmentation, the more effectively we can use ingredients. "We now know exactly how the skin makes mela- nin—the whole biochemical pathway from start to fi nish," Chillseyzn explains. "Much of the research in the fi eld focuses on tyrosinase [an enzyme that spurs melanin production from tyrosine through oxidation]. In the pathway, tyrosinase is produced by the melano- cyte [the skin cell responsible for pigmentation] and is responsible for several reactions. You can limit melanin by limiting tyrosinase anywhere along this pathway." ACTION AND DELIVERY "Skin brighteners" is an extremely broad term, and may sometimes involve functions other than melanin inhibi- tion. "For example, one of the things that I consider a 'brightener' is an exfoliant," explains Graf. "If a client has dry, muddy-looking skin and the dead skin is re- moved, her complexion will look brighter just by its mechanism of action." However, there are some targeted brightening agents that Graf is excited about. "There are marine active ingredients that aren't yet used in skin care— but they will be—that work on the signaling proteins in the skin for melanin production and DNA repair," she says. "We're now also looking at ways to interrupt exosomes, messenger proteins that tell the melano- cytes to build when the skin is hit with UV radiation. If you can decrease that message, chances are you can keep pigmentation from getting worse. "In addition, there are formulations that work with microfl ora—microorganisms that reside on the skin in a group as part of the human microbiome—to help reduce infl ammation and pigment production in the skin," she continues. "And although algae have been used for many years in skin brightening formulations, we're now seeing their action brought down to the peptide level to interact more with melanin inhibition." Delivery systems that keep active ingredients stable as they travel through the skin are vital to the process. Although liposomes have been, and still are, used as a favorite delivery vehicle, there are others that are becoming popular. "We use a liquid crystal emulsion based on natural emulsifi ers that both protect the integrity of the actives and deliver them effectively past the sebum layer on the skin," says Chillseyzn. "In recent years, advances in the fi eld of dermal delivery like this have also improved the effi cacy of nature-based products." "Most delivery systems are liposome-based, and although they can penetrate the skin well, they're delicate and not all may make it past the skin barrier," adds Graf. "One delivery system I've been watching is omnisomes, which are not phospholipids and are very stable. They can transport ingredients very deep into the skin and, by doing so, get more of those ingredients into the skin." © GETTY IMAGES

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