JAN 2016

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Page 56 of 107 | JANUARY 2016 55 day spama g | J AN U ARY 20 1 6 Algae: Many types of algae have been shown to inhibit tyrosinase activity, among them the seaweed pigment fucoxanthin (isolated from Laminaria japonica) and phloroglucinol derivatives, a metabolite constituent of brown algae. Algae also brighten skin by increasing microcirculation. Aloesin: Aloesin comes from the aloe vera plant. It's a naturally mild tyrosinase inhibitor, and its ability to penetrate the skin on its own is limited so it's usually combined with other ingredients. Asafetida extract: This botanical comes from the roots of the Ferula foetida plant and is used in traditional ayurvedic skin products. At a 2% use level, it has the ability to interrupt tyrosinase activity. Azelaic acid: Derived from barley and other grains, azelaic acid is primarily used in acne treatments, but can also decrease melanin production. In a 1991 double-blind study published in the International Journal of Dermatology, a 20% concentration cream yielded good or excellent results in 65% of users. Bearberry extract/arbutin: The leaves of the bearberry plant (Arctostaphylos) contain the hydroquinone derivative arbutin, an antioxidant that inhibits tyrosinase to prevent melanin formation and enhance the natural disintegration of melanin to reduce pigmentation. Arbutin is also found in wheat and pear skin. Chamomile extract: German chamomile (Matricaria recutita) is used in many skincare products to combat infl ammation, but it also functions as a mild brightener. Diacetyl-boldine: An extract from the bark of the Chilean boldo tree, diacetyl-boldine (trade name Lumiskin when used in a solution with caprylic/capric triglycerides) inhibits tyrosinase to block melanin production. Hexylresourcinal: An organic compound that has anesthetic and antiseptic properties, and acts as a tyrosinase inhibitor and antioxidant, this ingredient also brightens skin by preventing the yellowing that results from glycation. Hydroquinone: Probably the best known of lightening ingredients, hydroquinone works by decreasing production and increasing breakdown of melanosomes (melanin pigment granules) in the skin's pigment cells through inhibiting tyrosinase. It has broad depigmentation effects and is used on a variety of conditions, including age spots, melasma, freckles and acne scars. In the U.S., hydroquinone is classifi ed as an over-the- counter drug that may be used in concentrations of up to 2%. (4-Hydroxyphenoxy) propionic acid: Rather than affect how tyrosinase works, this molecule directly reduces the amount of melanin released by melanocytes. It also has protective and anti-infl ammatory effects. Kojic acid: Used in concentrations ranging from 0.1% to 2% in cosmetic formulations, kojic acid is an antibiotic produced by many species of the Aspergillus oryzae fungi. It brightens skin by inhibiting tyrosinase. It's also thought to decrease the number of dendrites that act as connecting bridges between melanocytes and skin cells. Licorice extract: The extract's active ingredient, glabridin (also known as Glycyrrhiza), decreases melanin production. Melanostatine-5: A combination of dextran (glucose polymer chain) and nonapeptide-1, Melanostatine-5 prevents the release of tyrosinase to suppress the production of melanin. Niacinamide: Also known as vitamin B 3 and nicotinic acid, niacinamide stimulates microcirculation and can even skin tone and fade hyperpigmentation from acne. Oligopeptide-68: A peptide that reduces tyrosinase levels in the skin to inhibit melanin production, Oligopeptide-68 is also known by its trade name, ß-White. Resveratrol: Derived from grape skin, resveratrol inhibits tyrosinase action and may have a photoprotective effect on skin cells bombarded by UV radiation. Vitamin A/retinol: Retinol reveals brighter skin by removing surface pigmentation and promoting cell turnover. It also increases ingredient absorption when used in combination products. Vitamin C/ascorbic acid: Vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, interrupts the production of melanin in the skin by stopping the action of the tyrosinase enzyme. However, ascorbic acid is unstable by itself and breaks down rapidly in water, so it's often combined with other brightening ingredients such as soy and licorice extract. Vitamin E: A natural anti-infl ammatory and antioxidant, vitamin E aids the body in absorbing and processing vitamin A, helping it to combat hyperpigmentation. Yeast extract: Yeast extract is rich in amino acids and peptides that have a brightening effect on skin. BRIGHTENING STARS Look for these established brightening ingredients when choosing a product for professional use or retailing. © GETTY IMAGES Bearberry Citrus fruits Licorice Asafetida Red grapes

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